The perception of Olympic Agenda 2020 Recommendations of college student athletes in Taiwan
Yi-Jen Yang, Mei-Yen Chen
National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan
Olympic Agenda 2020 is the strategic roadmap for the future of the Olympic Movement. The 40 recommendations of Agenda 2020 are built around three priority themes: sustainability, credibility, and youth. The purpose of this study was to understand the Perception of Olympic Agenda 2020 Concepts of College Student Athletes in Taiwan. The method included the importance-performance analysis (IPA) which was based on the mean performance and mean importance obtained from participants for each of five attributes of the Olympic Agenda 2020 recommendations. Performance refers to the satisfaction with the attribute and importance to the impact this performance has on the overall experience. Participants were 110 student athletes recruited from three universities in Taiwan. Descriptive statistics, IPA, and dependent samples t-test were utilized for the data analysis. The results revealed that Olympic knowledge, gender issues, anti-doping knowledge, strengthen IOC advocacy capacity, and spread Olympic values-based education was in the high importance and low performance quadrant. Also, there were some significant differences between the importance and performance of the recommendations. According to the result of this study, the organizer which include NOC and university should enhance the concept of these education and issues, providing pluralistic platform as incentives to build more activities and find the most appropriate way. The recommendations of the three priorities (sustainability, credibility, and youth) are inter-related, and together will guide future decision-making for bids, Games hosting, as well as the IOC’s work in international development with its 220-plus national Olympic Committees and the United Nations.
Keywords: Olympic movement, Olympism, IPA, Diversity
Developing and validating a differential leadership scale for sport teams
Chih-fu Cheng a, Kuo-en Huang a, Kuo-feng Tseng b, Wan-lin Yang b, Han-Lin Yeh a
a Department of physical education , National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan
b Graduate Institute of Sport, Leisure and Hospitality Management , National Taiwan
Background: In the recent research of Chinese organizational behavior, a unique differential leadership behavior has been developed in accordance of the Chinese cultural traits. Similar leadership behavior can also be observed in the sport context: coach treats athletes in such different ways based on the relationship between them. On the basis of differential leadership behavior of Chinese organizational behavior, this study will examine the theory on sport teams to explore traits of coach’s differential leadership behavior. Objectives: this study aims to develop a reliable and valid scale to measure sport teams’ traits in training setting and can be applied to further relative studies. Methods: The research is accomplished through two stages. Firstly, by conducting qualitative approach, 10 players and 11 coaches from five sport teams of Taiwan’s universities, including soccer, volleyball, baseball, softball, and basketball, are the participants in this survey. Group discussion and semi-structured interviews are implemented for data collection and induction. Established contents will later be validated through experts’ review. Secondly, by conducting empirical approach, 381 out of 397 subjects’ completed questionnaire forms were proved effectively with different team samples surveyed for exploratory factor analysis(EFA) and confirmatory factory analysis (CFA) respectively. In addition, various statistical analyses were used to examine the reliability and validity of the scale. Results: Sport differential leadership consists of 4 major components, including model empowerment, promotion supporting, acceptance communication and strict demanding were generated from EFA which accounted for 61.93% of the total variance. CFA showed that second-order model best fit the data. The composite reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity and criterion-related validity of the final instrument were acceptable. Discussion: The result indicates that the sport team differential scale includes four major factors, which fit empirical data and Chinese culture well, can be adopted towards future research of sport teams’ leadership behavior.
Key words: sport teams, differential leadership, scale development